Course material  – The Effective Change Manager’s Handbook

4 syllabus areas

  • Change and the individual
  • Change and the organisation
  • Communication and stakeholder engagement
  • Change management practice

The book has 13 chapters, representing 13 knowledge areas in the CMBoK


Change Management – Keys to Success

Discussion: What are factors contributing to success in change management?

Read page 4/5 IBM study on 4 key activities that make change effective.

Read bottom of page 7, Prosci research on CM. Discuss.

Relevance for your work?


Syllabus area 1: Change and the Individual


Kolb’s Learning cycle

Learning and the Individual learner  – page 374

The “learning loop” Kolb, 1984

Concrete experience – Something happens

Reflective observation – You think about it

Abstract conceptualisation – You identify a pattern

Practical Experimentation – You test your theory

Read page 375

“Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience” Kolb 1984

Effective learning only occurs when a learner can execute all four stages of the model.

Relevance for your work?


Honey and Mumford’s Learning styles

Read page 376

Linking Learning styles to Honey and Mumford, 1992.

Somebody prefers – Concrete experience – is ACTIVIST

Somebody prefers – Reflective observation – is REFLECTOR

Somebody prefers – Abstract conceptualisation – is THEORIST

Somebody prefers – Practical experimentation – is PRAGMATIST

Read Table 9.2 page 377

Relevance for your work?

EXERCISE:

“How would a ~ learn to swim?”

“What kind of car does a ~ drive?”

“What would a ~ name a new-born baby girl?”

“What is a ~ favourite song?”

“What does a ~ call their children?”

“What is a ~ favourite breakfast cereal?”

“How would a ~ build IKEA furniture?”

“How would a ~ put milk into the fridge?”

“How would a ~ have sex?”

“How would a ~ cheat on their partner?”

“How would a ~ do their laundry?”

“How would a ~ prefer to learn on a course?”

Relevance for your work?


Conscious Competence learning model

Performance Dip

Read 378/379 – Groups find/present examples of moving through the 4 stages

Play Hula Hoop video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cqy0PmEd_Vw

Possible – Play Bicycle video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFzDaBzBlL0

What happens people with Unconscious Competence try to teach people with Unconscious Incompetence?

How to move people out of Unconscious Incompetence?

What happens if there is no feedback in Conscious Incompetence?

Unconscious Incompetence: We’re blind, we need feedback

Conscious Incompetence: We’re unskilled, we need guidance

Conscious competence: We’re self-conscious, we need practice

Unconscious competence: We’re in the flow, we need new challenges

Activity: Individually, think of areas of skill or competence, and place these in each of the 4 areas.

Learning Dip questions in groups:

Your experiences of the learning Dip? What would have helped you through the Dip?

Relevance for your work?


Maslow – Hierarchy of needs

Maslows hierarchy of needs including sequence Page 17

Relevance for your work?


What motivates us?

Satisfaction and growth (Herzberg and Pink) Page 19/20

Play “what motivates us” video? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6XAPnuFjJc

Relevance for your work?


Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

MBTI and the terms used to describe differences between people Page 24/25/26

Read Summary page 27.

Take the test: https://www.16personalities.com/ (93 questions)

What type are you? Share in groups? What’s are benefits of knowing differences?
Balance video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5pggDCnt5M

https://www.psychologyjunkie.com/2018/02/02/dating-dos-donts-myers-briggs-personality-type/

Relevance for your work?


The Change Curve – Grief Cycle

The Change Curve – The Kugler-Ross grief cycle (Human response to change) Page 9

1. Shock

2. Denial

3. Anger or Blame

4. Bargaining or Self-Blame

5. Depression and Confusion

6. Acceptance

7. Problem-Solving

Homer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jYN4CllWuiM

Giraffe: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G_Z3lmidmrY

Relevance for your work?


Bridges – Managing Transitions

Bridges model of human transitions – Page 12-16

Change: Events and activities that can be entered into a plan

Transition: the human psychological process of letting go of pattern and engaging with a new one

Endings: Letting go of old ways

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=thR473oQZtA

Neutral Zone: In-between time, often stressful. The actual journey.

New Beginnings: Containing purpose, vision, a future blueprint. Celebrate milestones.

Relevance for your work?


Survival and learning anxieties

(Schein) Page 22

There are 2 types of anxiety of motivating behaviours

Learning anxiety: Feeling silly trying to learn something

Survival anxiety: The organisation may create anxiety to achieve change. The main ways are through:

• Disconfirmation = Current position won’t work anymore

• Creation of guilt or anxiety = change or colleagues may lose their job

• Creation of psychological safety = With support and coaching create a safe place to be, works well with the previous 2 in place.

Interview with Ed Schein: https://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/edgar-schein-the-anxiety-of-learning-the-darker-side-of-organizational-learning

“The evidence is mounting thatreal change does not begin until the organization experiences some real threat of pain that in some way dashes its expectations or hope open to the possibility of learning.”
– Edgar Schein 

Personal growth (Rogers) Page 23. For personal growth these 3 conditions are:

• Congruence = being authentic and genuine in the relationship

• Unconditional positive regard = full acceptance here and now without judgement

• Empathy = understand from their frame of reference

Not about nail: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-4EDhdAHrOg

“When I look at the world I’m pessimistic, but when I look at people I am optimistic.” – Carl Rogers

What approaches to motivating others have you seen work well? 

Relevance for your work?


Syllabus area 2: Change and the Organisation


Metaphors – Page 32
Morgan’s book is based on the premise that almost all our thinking about organisations is based on one or more of these 8 basic metaphors. The main reason his book is hugely valuable is that 99% of organisational conversations stay exclusively within one metaphor.  Worse, most people are permanently stuck in their favourite metaphor and simply cannot understand things said within other metaphors. So these are not really 8 perspectives, but 8 languages.To provide a framework for thinking about the change.

Machines – Simplistic metaphor
Organisms – Organisational DNA?
Brains – Learning
Culture – Great place to work & Zappos
Political system – Expect conflict
Psychic prison – Cults seeking to lock people in
Flux and Transformation – Agile Lean start-up Innovation
Instrument of domination – Aggressive oppression

  • Machines – Simplistic metaphor. People/Orgs can be designed and controlled
    • Change can planned and managed. People are seen as units of production and can be trained to fit in
  • Brains – Intelligence-led and resemble a library and memory bank
    • Change is seen as a learning process using ‘double loop’ learning
  • Political Systems – systems of gov. managing the common and conflicting needs of various interest groups
    • Conflict is expected and managed. Alignment of sources of power to support change.
  • Flux and Transformation – chaos and complexity where hierarchy and control have limited relevance. Order emerges naturally.
    • Managing change is impossible. Be aware and nudge in right direction when possible.

Read more: Images of Organisation – Gareth Morgan

Relevance for your work?


Organisational Culture – Page 60

  • Definition of organisational culture and the 3 levels of Surface, Norms and Values, Basic Assumptions
  • How it develops – page 61
  • How is it shaped?
    • Behaviours, Symbols, Patterns – Page 62
  • Significance of leadership – Page 66

Questions on page 66

Relevance for your work?


Cultural Archetypes

  • Incubator
  • Guided missile
  • Family
  • Eiffel Tower

These are the ten core values that Zappos employees live by:

  1. Deliver WOW Through Service
  2. Embrace and Drive Change
  3. Create Fun and A Little Weirdness
  4. Be Adventurous, Creative, and Open-Minded
  5. Pursue Growth and Learning
  6. Build Open and Honest Relationships With Communication
  7. Build a Positive Team and Family Spirit
  8. Do More With Less
  9. Be Passionate and Determined
  10. Be Humble

Relevance for your work?


Lewin’s 3 stage model – Page 36

  • Unfreeze, change, refreeze

Relevance for your work?

Kotter’s 8 step model – Page 38 (With right circumstances, change can be planned and managed)

  • Establish sense of urgency
  • Creating the guiding coalition
  • Developing vision and strategy
  • Communicating change vision
  • Empowering employees for broad-based action
  • Generating short term wins
  • Consolidating gains and producing more change
  • Anchoring new approaches in the culture

Relevance for your work?

Senge’s System Thinking

  • Think less like managers and more like biologists
  • A learning organisation, everything is interconnected
  • Change in one area causes changes in other areas
  • Which dominates mostly in your org?  – Control or learning
  • I’m probably part of the problem, be prepared to be wrong
  • Less focus on smarter individuals, and more on smarter collectively

Relevance for your work?


Key roles in Organisational change

Table 1.6 “Our Term” – Page 48

Relevance for your work?


Force Field Analysis – Page 93

Terms, assumptions, steps.

Relevance for your work?


Organisational Change with Kotter – Page 73

  • Dual operating system approach to continuous change

Behaviours of:  – Page 49/50

  • Change Sponsor
  • Change Agent
  • Line Manager


Emergent Change – Page 67 – Bottom of Page 73 – Page 89

  • Characteristics of change situations requiring an “emergent approach”
  • https://www.saybrook.edu/blog/2012/04/06/emergent-change/ (article on “What is Emergent change?”

Future State and Leadership – Page 71


Change Vision

  • Vision v Mission – What’s the difference?
  • Pitfalls to avoid when writing vision statements


Syllabus area 3: Communication and Stakeholder engagement


Definition of stakeholder

Principles of stakeholder engagement – Page 174

Stakeholder radar – 195

Mapping in two dimensions – Power/Influence grid Page 197

Push/Pull communication – Page 234

Lean/Rich communication channels – Page 235


CPIG Classification – Page 179


Stakeholder segments

  • Personas Page 191
  • Empathy mapping – Page 194

Common biases and approaches to deal with them – Page 215

  • Confirmation bias
  • Status quo bias
  • Availability bias
  • Bandwagon effect


Feedback and communication challenges

People-focussed approach

Improving communication effectiveness and engagement


Strengths and weaknesses of various communication methods and challenges


Key elements of a Communication strategy – Page 248


Syllabus area 4: Change Management Practice


  • Beckhard & Harris Change formula and how they may be used to increase motivation for change C=[ABD]>X – Page 292
    • C = Change
    • A = Level of dissatisfaction of status quo
    • B = Desirability of the proposed change or end state
    • D = Practicality of the change, minimal risk and disruption.
    • X = Perceived cost of the Change
  • Purpose and key elements of a change management plan – Page 310
    • Stakeholders
    • Communications
    • Developing skills
    • Building support
    • Resistance
    • Feedback
    • Measurement
  • Stage of Team development (Tuckman) – Page 502
    • Forming
    • Storming
    • Norming
    • Performing
    • Adjourning
  • Change Management as a risk management strategy – Page 259
    • The overlapping of Change impacts/Change risks/Business Continuity
  • Categories of change impacts and key inputs – Page 260
    • The intended change
    • The unintended outcome
    • The change management activities
  • McKinsey 7S model – Page 262 – Including Gap model 263
    • Strategy
    • Structure
    • Systems
    • Shared values
    • Style
    • Staff
    • Skills
  • Steps of a Stakeholder Impact Assessment – Page 268
    • High level impact assessment
    • Determine stakeholder impacts
    • Analyse impacts
    • Validate impacts
    • Assess impacts severity
  • Change severity assessment – Page 275
    • Environment
    • Change ability of the organisation
    • History of change in the organisation
    • Individual responses to change
  • Working with individuals in large changes – Page 294
    • Using Change agent networks
  • Building a Change team – Page 308
    • Internal v External recruitment