==Models of Change==
There are many theories about how to ‘do’ and ‘manage’ Change. Three of the most common models of Change process are:

==Kurt Lewin==

  • Unfreeze (define current state, create vision, force field analysis of driving and restraining forces)
  • Change (Follow change plan, create safety, involve people)
  • Refreeze (Boost the new ways of working, awards and recognition for the new way of working)

==Peter Senge==
*”We need to think less like managers and more like biologists” – Senge recommends biological and ecological metaphors to view organisations

  • Positive feedback loops (Virtuous circle) and Negative feedback loops (Vicious circle)
  • To understand change, we need to understand the self-reinforcing growth processes that will support the change and the limiting processes that will kill the change.


Many ideas on Change Management originate with leadership and change management guru, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Kotter John Kotter]. Kotter is professor at Harvard Business School and world-renowned Change expert, Kotter introduced his eight-step change process in his 1995 book, “Leading Change.” Next time at the airport and some time to kill, pick up a copy of Harvard Business Review and itusually has an article on Kotter and organisational change. Kotter’s main idea is that given the right processes and right leadership, change can be planned and managed.

===Kotter’s 8-steps model===

Establishing a Sense of Urgency
Creating the Guiding Coalition
Developing a Vision and Strategy
Communicating the Change Vision
Empowering Employees for Broad-Based Action
Generating Short-Term Wins
Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change
Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture

===The 8 steps as simple as possible===

Sense of urgency = The grass IS greener on the other side
Guiding coalition = Build a credible, powerful, trusting team
Vision = Postcard from the future – Think DUMBER
Communicating the vision = Leaders need to walk the talk
Empowering employees = Herzberg/Pink Autonomy, Mastery and Purpose – Drive film
Generating short-term wins = Agile, think Kanban and 100% done – Think SMART
Build on the change = Increase resources for the change effort! Potential Opportunity Analysis
Sustain the change = In culture, values, recruitment, leadership training
===Running a Kotter based workshop===
Buy in copies of the book “Our Iceberg Is Melting!” for everyone. “Who moved my cheese” also works but isn’t written by Kotter.
Disclaimer to everyone that the book is simple but the lessons are deep and provides a scenario to talk about instead of the companies employees. Ensure everyone has read the book before the workshop starts.
Each of these steps can be smaller workshops. Some should be repeated to allow for new ideas and fresher thinking.

Step 1
*Sense of Urgency
** How can we help others recognise the need for change?
** Have we communicated the problem clearly?
** What forces are acting against us? Why?
** What could be done to create the urgency?

Step 2
*Creating the Guiding Coalition
** Do we have a team or a gang? How do we know?
** How can the team build more trust with each other?
** What authority is not represented in the team, but maybe should be?
** Is our team working at the right level – vision or small tasks?

Step 3
*Developing a Vision and Strategy
** The Lily problem
** What is the vision for the change effort?
** How exciting is this vision? Ok or improve?
** Is the vision memorable?
** Will it inspire to action?

Step 4
*Communicating the Change Vision
** How to communicate at the right level?
** How inspiring is our story?
** Are the right people working on this?
**Who should be communicating the vision but maybe isn’t?

Step 5
*Empowering Employees for Broad-Based Action
** Scout and Beacon
** Who are creating effect?
** Where are the energy vampires?
** How can we empower more? Time? Authority? Resources? Money?
** What rules/procedures/policies need to be kicked out?

Step 6
*Generating Short-Term Wins
** Kanban
** Get shit done!
** 100% done
** Do what matters!
** Important/Urgent matrix
** Scout and Beacon like crazy!

Step 7
*Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change
** Don’t let up!
** How could we produce a 2nd/3rd wave of change?
** How can we visualise this to employees?
** How can each team keep the momentum going?

Step 8
*Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture
** What are the best ways to reinforce the new ways of working?
** How could we benefits from a Training Needs Analysis?
** What leadership training is required to make this stick long term?
** What type of culture workshops would help make this change stick?

==Case study on Kotter’s model==

==Kotter steps in 3 sections==
Image showing Kotters steps divided into the 3 main areas.